The long deﬁnition, professionals‘ version:
Neuropsychology is a specialized domain of psychology that is focused on the multiple relationships between (1) cognitive and affective functioning, (2) personality and behaviour, and (3) their normal or abnormal neurobiological correlates in diﬀerent contexts and phases of the life cycle of the individual. This is achieved by the application of a variety of methods and techniques, some of which are speciﬁc to Neuropsychology, while others are common to other areas of Psychology and Neuroscience.
Clinical Neuropsychology is the application of neuropsychology in clinical situations across the life span both in research and in professional practice. The activity of Clinical Neuropsychology is directed at studying alterations in the cognitive or aﬀective functioning, personality, or behaviour of the individual, and seeking to understand how these relate to the nervous system in general and the brain in particular. Consideration is given to how the cognitive, affective, personality and behavioural phenomena are expressed in different states of either normal brain functioning or acquired or developmental brain injury, in diﬀerent stages of development, and in different contexts of the individual, family, society and culture. The practice of Clinical Neuropsychology is fundamentally based on the exploration and systematic evaluation with the use of psychological and neuropsychological assessment instruments, along with other sources of information.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist in professional practice draws upon both scientiﬁc knowledge and clinical skills. The scientific foundations of practice rely on formal knowledge of the theories and phenomena of normal and abnormal cognitive and aﬀective functioning, behaviour, personality and psychopathology, formal knowledge of their neurobiological correlates and functional neuroanatomy, and formal knowledge of psychometry in measuring these phenomena. Clinical skills include the identification of relevant medical and non-medical information in the reviewed records, the application of interview techniques, clinical observation, the administration of standardized instruments, the interpretation of test results, and the clinical case formulation.
The Clinical Neuropsychologist utilises the clinical case formulation for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, and for planning, implementation, and evaluation of neuropsychological intervention. When relevant, the Clinical Neuropsychologist applies individual and group intervention skills that may include behaviour management or modiﬁcation approaches, psychoeducation, and psychological support, as well as the implementation of programs involving stimulation, maintenance, or rehabilitation and training of neuropsychological functions. The Clinical Neuropsychologists can apply their expertise to a number of contexts including e.g. neurological, psychiatric, paediatric, other somatic medicine, and forensic services.
The Standing Committee on Clinical Neuropsychology of EFPA